The FREE policy papers on football governance present the results of the project’s governance-related research. They provide an in-depth study of the way in which supporters in Europe are currently getting involved in football governance and/or club ownership.
Supporter activism has developed over the last decades exponentially following the modernisation and commercialisation of the professional game. There are growing numbers of supporter organisations advocating for the role of the fans as legitimate stakeholders. Since 2007 Supporters Direct Europe and Football Supporters Europe have been recognised as representatives of the supporters movement at European level. Their work and growing membership is testimony to the importance of this issue.
Supporter culture and the fan movement in Europe are diverse and heterogeneous. They present a diversity which is difficult to grasp in its entirety. These policy papers draw on a comprehensive and reliable data set:
- A CATI telephone survey whose sampling technique makes it statistically representative of the whole population of Austria, Denmark, France Germany,Italy, Poland, Spain, Turkey and the United Kingdom (total sample = 7 252, margin of statistical error: ±3.4, 95% confidence interval)
- An on-line survey targeted at a specific sub-group of the population defined as ‘attentive public to football’. The survey was widely distributed online. It was self-selected. The final sample following data cleaning (N=11 384) obtained a sufficient number of responses to carry out a comparative analysis of six countries: France, Germany, Poland, Spain, Turkey and the UK.
- In-depth qualitative research with football supporters who freely signed up to take part in the project. For this, fans kept a diary and took photographs over eight weeks, with a semi-structured interview at the end. The total sample is composed of 65 supporters from 5 different countries: Austria, Poland, Spain, Turkey and the UK. These policy papers draw upon the comments made bythose supporters based in the UK (N=37).
Please click here to download Policy Paper №1: What is wrong with football?
Please click here to download Policy Paper №2: What could be done to improve football governance?
Please click here to download Policy Paper №3: Are supporters getting involved in football governance?
Please click here to download Policy Paper №4: Supporter ownership and the Supporter Trust model in football.